Interactive Self-Study Module: First Law - Open Systems
This module uses screencasts and an interactive simulation to explain the application of the first law of thermodynamics (energy balance) to open systems. These are systems with mass flow in and/or out. They may be at steady state (mass flow rate in = mass flow rate out), or they may be transient systems in which energy accumulates or is depleted from the system. The module provides example problems to allow the user to test themselves. Your retention of material in this module will increase if you write down reasons for your answers to ConcepTests, questions in screencasts, and questions to answer before using interactive simulation(s), and you try to solve the example problems before watching the screencast solutions. We suggest reviewing the First Law: Closed Systems module before using the learning resources in the following order:
- Attempt to answer the multiple-choice ConcepTest and solve the example problem before watching the screencasts or working with the simulations.
- Watch the screencasts that explain enthalpy, flow work, and the first law, and answer the questions within the screencasts.
- Review important equations for open systems.
- Use the interactive simulation(s) to further understand the behavior of the phase diagrams.
- Try to solve the example problems before watching the solutions in the screencasts.
- Answer the ConcepTests.
- Look at the list of key points, but only after you try to list the key points yourself.
- Many real life processes are open systems and require energy and mass balances.
- This module is intended for a thermodynamics course.
Before studying this module, you should:
- Understand energy balances for a closed system.
- Be familiar with single-component phase equilibrium.
- Know how to use steam tables.
- Understand the concept of state functions.
- Know the definition of enthalpy.
After studying this module, you should be able to:
- Apply the first law for open systems in its differential equation form and its integrated form.
- Apply the first law (energy balance) to steady-state flow systems, including throttles, turbines, compressors, and pumps.
- Apply the unsteady-state first law to flow into or out of a tank.
- Understand how gas flowing into a tank does work on the tank contents.
- Explain the concept of flow work and why enthalpy is used for energy flowing into or out of a system.