\[\frac{P_1}{\gamma} + \frac{V_1 ^2}{2g} + z_1 = \frac{P_2}{\gamma} + \frac{V_2 ^2}{2g} + z_2 + h_L\]where \(P_1\) and \(P_2\) are pressures, \(\gamma\) is the specific weight of the fluid, \(g\) is the gravitational constant, \(V_1\) and \(V_2\) are velocities \(z_1\) and \(z_2\) are heights, and \(h_L\) is the head loss.

\(h_L\) consists of two components, major and minor.

\[h_{L,major} = f \frac{L}{D} \frac{V^2}{2g}\]

where \(f\) is the friction factor, \(D\) is the pipe diameter, and \(L\) is the length of the pipe.

\[h_{L,minor} = \frac{K_L V^2}{2g} = \frac{f \frac{L_{eq}}{D} V^2}{2g}\]

where \(K_L\) is the minor loss coefficient and \(L_{eq}\) is the equivalent length of the pipe.