**Kinetic Energy:**

\[E_K = \frac{1}{2} mu^2\]

where \(E_K\) = kinetic energy,

\(m\) = mass, and

\(u\) = velocity

**Potential Energy:**

\[E_P = mgh\]

where \(E_P\) = potential energy,

\(g\) = the acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2), and

\(h\) = height above reference plane.

**First Law Closed System:**

\[\Delta U + \Delta E_K + \Delta E_P = Q + W\]

where \(\Delta U\) = change in internal energy,

\(\Delta E_K\) = change in kinetic energy,

\(\Delta E_P\) = change in potential energy,

\(Q\) = heat added, and

\(W\) = work added.